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Scientific publications

Clinical use of ketamine

Overview of scientific publications

Depression and ketamine

  • Andrade, C. (2019). Oral ketamine for depression, 1: Pharmacologic considerations and clinical evidence. J Clin Psychiatry, 80(2). doi: 10.4088/JCP.19f12820
  • Banov, M. D., Young, J. R., Dunn, T., & Szabo, S. T. (2019). Efficacy and safety of ketamine in the management of anxiety and anxiety spectrum disorders: A review of the literature. CNS Spectr, 1-12. doi: 10.1017/S1092852919001238
  • Bell, R. F. (2012). Ketamine for chronic noncancer pain: Concerns regarding toxicity. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care, 6(2), 183-187. doi: 10.1097/SPC.0b013e328352812c
  • Berman, R. M., Cappiello, A., Anand, A., Oren, D. A., Heninger, G. R., Charney, D. S., & Krystal, J. H. (2000). Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients. Biol Psychiatry, 47(4), 351-354. doi: 10.1016/s0006-3223(99)00230-9
  • Dakwar, E., Anerella, C., Hart, C. L., Levin, F. R., Mathew, S. J., & Nunes, E. V. (2014). Therapeutic infusions of  ketamine: Do the psychoactive effects matter? Drug Alcohol Depend, 136, 153-157. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.019
  • Dakwar, E., Levin, F., Hart, C. L., Basaraba, C., Choi, J., Pavlicova, M., & Nunes, E. V. (2020). A single ketamine infusion combined with motivational enhancement therapy for alcohol use disorder: A randomized midazolam-controlled pilot trial. Am J Psychiatry, 177(2), 125-133. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19070684
  • Dakwar, E., Nunes, E. V., Hart, C. L., Foltin, R. W., Mathew, S. J., Carpenter, K. M., . . . Levin, F. R. (2019). A single ketamine infusion combined with mindfulness-based behavioral modification to treat cocaine dependence: A randomized clinical trial. Am J Psychiatry, 176(11), 923-930. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18101123
  • Dittrich, A. (1998). The standardized psychometric assessment of altered states of consciousness (ascs) in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 31 Suppl 2, 80-84. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-979351
  • Dore, J., Turnipseed, B., Dwyer, S., Turnipseed, A., Andries, J., Ascani, G., . . . Wolfson, P. (2019). Ketamine assisted psychotherapy (kap): Patient demographics, clinical data and outcomes in three large practices administering ketamine with psychotherapy. J Psychoactive Drugs, 51(2), 189-198. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2019.1587556
  • Gao, M., Rejaei, D., & Liu, H. (2016). Ketamine use in current clinical practice. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 37(7), 865-872. doi: 10.1038/aps.2016.5 Horacek, J., Brunovsky, M., Novak, T., Tislerova, B., Palenicek, T., Bubenikova-Valesova, V., . . . Hoschl, C. (2010). Subanesthetic dose of ketamine decreases prefrontal theta cordance in healthy volunteers: Implications for antidepressant effect. Psychol Med, 40(9), 1443-1451. doi: 10.1017/S0033291709991619
  • Horacek, J., Lipski, M. , & Sos, P. (2016). Příběh jedné molekuly. Čtyři tváře ketaminu. Vesmír, 95(5), 272–275.
  • Horacek, J., Palenicek, T., Malek, J., Scigel, V., Kurzova, A., & Hess, L. (2012). The influence of clonidine on oral ketamine-midazolam premedication in intellectually disabled patients indicated for dental procedures: Double-blind comparison of two sedation regimes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 33(4), 380-384.
  • Iglewicz, A., Morrison, K., Nelesen, R. A., Zhan, T., Iglewicz, B., Fairman, N., . . . Irwin, S. A. (2015). Ketamine for the treatment of depression in patients receiving hospice care: A retrospective medical record review of thirty-one cases. Psychosomatics, 56(4), 329-337. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2014.05.005
  • Kishimoto, T., Chawla, J. M., Hagi, K., Zarate, C. A., Kane, J. M., Bauer, M., & Correll, C. U. (2016). Single-dose infusion ketamine and non-ketamine n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists for unipolar and bipolar depression: A meta-analysis of efficacy, safety and time trajectories. Psychol Med, 46(7), 1459-1472. doi: 10.1017/S0033291716000064
  • Krupitsky, E., Burakov, A., Romanova, T., Dunaevsky, I., Strassman, R., & Grinenko, A. (2002). Ketamine psychotherapy for heroin addiction: Immediate effects and two-year follow-up. J Subst Abuse Treat, 23(4), 273-283. doi: 10.1016/s0740-5472(02)00275-1
  • Krupitsky, E. M., Burakov, A. M., Dunaevsky, I. V., Romanova, T. N., Slavina, T. Y., & Grinenko, A. Y. (2007). Single versus repeated sessions of ketamine-assisted psychotherapy for people with heroin dependence. J Psychoactive Drugs, 39(1), 13-19. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2007.10399860
  • Liao, Y., Tang, J., Corlett, P. R., Wang, X., Yang, M., Chen, H., . . . Fletcher, P. C. (2011). Reduced dorsal prefrontal gray matter after chronic ketamine use. Biol Psychiatry, 69(1), 42-48. doi:  10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.08.030
  • Liu, S. Y. W., Ng, S. K. K., Tam, Y. H., Yee, S. C. H., Lai, F. P. T., Hong, C. Y. L., . . . Ng, C. F. (2017). Clinical pattern and prevalence of upper gastrointestinal toxicity in patients abusing ketamine. J Dig Dis, 18(9), 504-510. doi: 10.1111/1751-2980.12512
  • Luckenbaugh, D. A., Niciu, M. J., Ionescu, D. F., Nolan, N. M., Richards, E. M., Brutsche, N. E., . . . Zarate, C. A. (2014). Do the dissociative side effects of ketamine mediate its antidepressant effects? J Affect Disord, 159, 56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.02.017
  • Morgan, C. J., Curran, H. V., & Independent Scientific Committee on, Drugs. (2012). Ketamine use: A review. Addiction, 107(1), 27-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03576.x
  • Muetzelfeldt, L., Kamboj, S. K., Rees, H., Taylor, J., Morgan, C. J., & Curran, H. V. (2008). Journey through the k-hole: Phenomenological aspects of ketamine use. Drug Alcohol Depend, 95(3), 219-229. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.01.024
  • Olney, J. W., Labruyere, J., & Price, M. T. (1989). Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and related drugs. Science, 244(4910), 1360-1362. doi: 10.1126/science.2660263
  • Olney, J. W., Labruyere, J., Wang, G., Wozniak, D. F., Price, M. T., & Sesma, M. A. (1991). Nmda antagonist neurotoxicity: Mechanism and prevention. Science, 254(5037), 1515-1518. doi: 10.1126/science.1835799
  • Olney, J. W., Price, M. T., Fuller, T. A., Labruyere, J., Samson, L., Carpenter, M., & Mahan, K. (1986). The anti-excitotoxic effects of certain anesthetics, analgesics and sedative-hypnotics. Neurosci Lett, 68(1), 29-34. doi: 10.1016/0304-3940(86)90224-7
  • Peltoniemi, M. A., Hagelberg, N. M., Olkkola, K. T., & Saari, T. I. (2016). Ketamine: A review of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in anesthesia and pain therapy. Clin Pharmacokinet, 55(9), 1059-1077. doi: 10.1007/s40262-016-0383-6
  • Rosenblat, J. D., Carvalho, A. F., Li, M., Lee, Y., Subramanieapillai, M., & McIntyre, R. S. (2019). Oral ketamine for depression: A systematic review. J Clin Psychiatry, 80(3). doi: 10.4088/JCP.18r12475
  • Shahani, R., Streutker, C., Dickson, B., & Stewart, R. J. (2007). Ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis: A new clinical entity. Urology, 69(5), 810-812. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2007.01.038
  • Sos, P., Klirova, M., Novak, T., Kohutova, B., Horacek, J., & Palenicek, T. (2013). Relationship of ketamine’s antidepressant and psychotomimetic effects in unipolar depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 34(4), 287-293.
  • Vollenweider, F. X., & Kometer, M. (2010). The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: Implications for the treatment of mood disorders. Nat Rev Neurosci, 11(9), 642-651. doi: 10.1038/nrn2884
  • Wan, L. B., Levitch, C. F., Perez, A. M., Brallier, J. W., Iosifescu, D. V., Chang, L. C., . . . Murrough, J. W. (2015). Ketamine safety and tolerability in clinical trials for treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychiatry, 76(3), 247-252. doi: 10.4088/JCP.13m08852
  • Xu, J., & Lei, H. (2014). Ketamine-an update on its clinical uses and abuses. CNS Neurosci Ther, 20(12), 1015-1020. doi: 10.1111/cns.12363

Anxiety disorders (GAD, SAD) and ketamine

  • Glue, P., Medlicott, N. J., Harland, S., Neehoff, S., Anderson-Fahey, B., Le Nedelec, M., … & McNaughton, N. (2017). Ketamine’s dose-related effects on anxiety symptoms in patients with treatment refractory anxiety disorders. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 31(10), 1302-1305.
  • Glue, P., Neehoff, S., Sabadel, A., Broughton, L., Le Nedelec, M., Shadli, S., … & Medlicott, N. J. (2019). Effects of ketamine in patients with treatment-refractory generalized anxiety and social anxiety disorders: exploratory double-blind psychoactive-controlled replication study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 34(3), 267-272.
  • Glue, P., Neehoff, S. M., Medlicott, N. J., Gray, A., Kibby, G., & McNaughton, N. (2018). Safety and efficacy of maintenance ketamine treatment in patients with treatment-refractory generalised anxiety and social anxiety disorders. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(6), 663-667.
  • Taylor, J. H., Landeros-Weisenberger, A., Coughlin, C., Mulqueen, J., Johnson, J. A., Gabriel, D., … & Bloch, M. H. (2018). Ketamine for social anxiety disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Neuropsychopharmacology, 43(2), 325-333.
  • Salloum, N. C., Fava, M., Freeman, M. P., Flynn, M., Hoeppner, B., Hock, R. S., … & Papakostas, G. I. (2019). Efficacy of intravenous ketamine treatment in anxious versus nonanxious unipolar treatment‐resistant depression. Depression and anxiety, 36(3), 235-243.
  • McIntyre, R. S., Lipsitz, O., Rodrigues, N. B., Lee, Y., Cha, D. S., Vinberg, M., … & Rosenblat, J. D. (2020). The effectiveness of ketamine on anxiety, irritability, and agitation: implications for treating mixed features in adults with major depressive or bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorders, 22(8), 831-840.

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and ketamine

  • Adams, T.G.; Bloch, M.H.; Pittenger, C. Intranasal Ketamine and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Treatment-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2017, 37, 269–271.
  • Bloch, M.H.; Wasylink, S.; Landeros-Weisenberger, A.; Panza, K.E.; Billingslea, E.; Leckman, J.F.; Krystal, J.H.; Bhagwagar, Z.; Sanacora, G.; Pittenger, C. Effects of ketamine in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2012, 72, 964–970.
  • Niciu, M.J.; Grunschel, B.D.; Corlett, P.R.; Pittenger, C.; Bloch, M.H. Two cases of delayed-onset suicidal ideation, dysphoria and anxiety after ketamine infusion in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and a history of major depressive disorder. J. Psychopharmacol. 2013, 27, 651–654.
  • Rodriguez, C.I.; Kegeles, L.S.; Levinson, A.; Feng, T.; Marcus, S.M.; Vermes, D.; Flood, P.; Simpson, H.B. Randomized controlled crossover trial of ketamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Proof-of-concept. Neuropsychopharmacology 2013, 38, 2475–2483.
  • Rodriguez, C.I.; Wheaton, M.; Zwerling, J.; Steinman, S.S.; Sonnenfeld, D.; Galfalvy, H.; Blair Simpson, H. Can Exposure-Based CBT Extend IV Ketamine’s Effects in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? An Open-Label Trial. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2016, 77, 408–409.
  • Rodriguez, C.I.; Lapidus, K.; Zwerling, J.; Levinson, A.; Mahnke, A.; Steinman, S.A.; Kalanthroff, E.; Simpson, H.B. Challenges in Testing Intranasal Ketamine in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2017, 78, 466–467.
  • Rodriguez, C.I.; Kegeles, L.S.; Levinson, A.; Ogden, R.T.; Mao, X.; Milak, M.S.; Vermes, D.; Xie, S.; Hunter, L.; Flood, P.; et al. In vivo effects of ketamine on glutamate-glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Proof of concept. Psychiatry Res. 2015, 233, 141–147.
  • Rodriguez, C.I.; Levinson, A.; Zwerling, J.; Vermes, D.; Simpson, H.B. Open-Label trial on the effects of memantine in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder after a single ketamine infusion. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2016, 77, 688–689.
  • Rodriguez, C.I.; Kegeles, L.S.; Flood, P.; Simpson, H.B. Rapid resolution of obsessions after an infusion of intravenous ketamine in a patient with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2011, 72, 567–569.
  • Sharma, L.P.; Thamby, A.; Balachander, S.; Janardhanan, C.N.; Jaisoorya, T.S.; Arumugham, S.S.; Reddy, Y. Clinical utility of repeated intravenous ketamine treatment for resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Asian J. Psychiatry 2020, 52, 102183.

Eating disorders and ketamine

  • Hermens, D. F., Simcock, G., Dutton, M., Bouças, A. P., Can, A. T., Lilley, C., & Lagopoulos, J. (2020). Anorexia nervosa, zinc deficiency and the glutamate system: The ketamine option. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 101, 109921.
  • Murray, S. L., & Holton, K. F. (2021). Post-traumatic stress disorder may set the neurobiological stage for eating disorders: A focus on glutamatergic dysfunction. Appetite, 167, 105599.
  • Keeler, J. L., Treasure, J., Juruena, M. F., Kan, C., & Himmerich, H. (2021). Ketamine as a Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A Narrative Review. Nutrients, 13(11), 4158.
  • Keeler, J. L., Treasure, J., Juruena, M. F., Kan, C., & Himmerich, H. (2021). Ketamine as a Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A Narrative Review. Nutrients, 13(11), 4158.
  • Mills, I. H., Park, G. R., Manara, A. R., & Merriman, R. J. (1998). Treatment of compulsive behaviour in eating disorders with intermittent ketamine infusions. QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians, 91(7), 493-503.
  • Scolnick, B., Zupec-Kania, B., Calabrese, L., Aoki, C., & Hildebrandt, T. (2020). Remission from chronic anorexia nervosa with ketogenic diet and ketamine: case report. Frontiers in psychiatry, 763.
  • Dechant, E., Boyle, B., & Ross, R. A. (2020). Ketamine in a Patient with Comorbid Anorexia and MDD. Journal of Womens Health and Development, 3(3), 373-375.
  • Schwartz, T., Trunko, M. E., Feifel, D., Lopez, E., Peterson, D., Frank, G. K., & Kaye, W. (2021). A longitudinal case series of IM ketamine for patients with severe and enduring eating disorders and comorbid treatment‐resistant depression. Clinical case reports, 9(5), e03869.
  • Ragnhildstveit, A., Jackson, L. K., Cunningham, S., Good, L., Tanner, Q., Roughan, M., & Henrie-Barrus, P. (2021). Case Report: Unexpected Remission From Extreme and Enduring Bulimia Nervosa With Repeated Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ketamine

  • Jumaili, W. A., Trivedi, C., Chao, T., Kubosumi, A., & Jain, S. (2022). The safety and efficacy of ketamine NMDA receptor blocker as a therapeutic intervention for PTSD review of a randomized clinical trial. Behavioural brain research, 424, 113804.
  • Feder, A., Parides, M. K., Murrough, J. W., Perez, A. M., Morgan, J. E., Saxena, S., Kirkwood, K., Aan Het Rot, M., Lapidus, K. A., Wan, L. B., Iosifescu, D., & Charney, D. S. (2014). Efficacy of intravenous ketamine for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA psychiatry, 71(6), 681–688.
  • Feder, A., Costi, S., Rutter, S. B., Collins, A. B., Govindarajulu, U., Jha, M. K., Horn, S. R., Kautz, M., Corniquel, M., Collins, K. A., Bevilacqua, L., Glasgow, A. M., Brallier, J., Pietrzak, R. H., Murrough, J. W., & Charney, D. S. (2021). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Repeated Ketamine Administration for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The American journal of psychiatry, 178(2), 193–202.
  • Pradhan, B., Mitrev, L., Moaddell, R., & Wainer, I. W. (2018). d-Serine is a potential biomarker for clinical response in treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder using (R,S)-ketamine infusion and TIMBER psychotherapy: A pilot study. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics, 1866(7), 831–839.
  • Dadabayev, A. R., Joshi, S. A., Reda, M. H., Lake, T., Hausman, M. S., Domino, E., & Liberzon, I. (2020). Low Dose Ketamine Infusion for Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Pain: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial. Chronic stress (Thousand Oaks, Calif.), 4, 2470547020981670.
  • Abdallah, C. G., Roache, J. D., Averill, L. A., Young-McCaughan, S., Martini, B., Gueorguieva, R., Amoroso, T., Southwick, S. M., Guthmiller, K., López-Roca, A. L., Lautenschlager, K., Mintz, J., Litz, B. T., Williamson, D. E., Keane, T. M., Peterson, A. L., Krystal, J. H., & Consortium to Alleviate PTSD (2019). Repeated ketamine infusions for antidepressant-resistant PTSD: Methods of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Contemporary clinical trials, 81, 11–18.
  • Albott, C. S., Lim, K. O., Forbes, M. K., Erbes, C., Tye, S. J., Grabowski, J. G., Thuras, P., Batres-Y-Carr, T. M., Wels, J., & Shiroma, P. R. (2018). Efficacy, Safety, and Durability of Repeated Ketamine Infusions for Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Treatment-Resistant Depression. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 79(3), 17m11634.
  • Shiroma, P. R., Thuras, P., Wels, J., Erbes, C., Kehle-Forbes, S., & Polusny, M. (2020). A Proof-of-Concept Study of Subanesthetic Intravenous Ketamine Combined With Prolonged Exposure Therapy Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 81(6), 20l13406.
  • Hartberg, J., Garrett-Walcott, S., & De Gioannis, A. (2018). Impact of oral ketamine augmentation on hospital admissions in treatment-resistant depression and PTSD: a retrospective study. Psychopharmacology, 235(2), 393–398.
  • Davis, A. K., Mangini, P., & Xin, Y. (2021). Ketamine-assisted psychotherapy for trauma-exposed patients in an outpatient setting: A clinical chart review study, Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 5(2), 94-102. Retrieved Apr 11, 2022, from
  • Keizer, B. M., Roache, J. D., Jones, J. R., Kalpinski, R. J., Porcerelli, J. H., & Krystal, J. H. (2020). Continuous Ketamine Infusion for Pain as an Opportunity for Psychotherapy for PTSD: A Case Series of Ketamine-Enhanced Psychotherapy for PTSD and Pain (KEP-P2). Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 89(5), 326–329.
  • Halstead, M., Reed, S., Krause, R., & Williams, M. T. (2021). Ketamine-Assisted Psychotherapy for PTSD Related to Racial Discrimination. Clinical Case Studies, 20(4), 310–330.


Psyon was started by a team of leading researchers and practitioners in the field of mental health, including neuroscientists, physicians and psychologists. The Psyon team includes:

prof. MUDr. Jiří Horáček, Ph.D., FCMA

research at the Czech National Institute of Mental Health (NÚDZ), physician, researcher, and professor at the 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University

MUDr. Tomáš Páleníček, Ph.D.

researcher at NÚDZ, physician, and lecturer at the 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University

MUDr. Martin Brunovský, Ph.D.

head of a research programme at NÚDZ, head physician, researcher, and lecturer at the 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University

MUDr. Filip Tylš, Ph.D.

researcher at NÚDZ, physician, lecturer at the 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, and psychotherapist

Mgr. et Mgr. Stanislav Milotinský

psychologist at Bohnice Psychiatric Hospital in Prague, psychotherapist, PhD student

Ing. Václav Štrupl

successful businessman, founder of the fund Miton Psychonauts dedicated to the area of mental health

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